Young people who have reached the minimum age of a high school graduate but are under the age of 18 are considered young workers. They can stop their studies on the last Friday of June of the school year after reaching the age of 16. The rights of young workers are protected by a multiple of laws. They regulate the issues of health and safety, the type and place of work, and the number of working hours. The employer has no right to violate these laws. In addition, young people have other rights in the workplace. For example, they cannot be discriminated against their age.
In this article, a "child" means a person who has not reached the age of 14 years. "Young person" is the one who is more than 14, but less than 18 years old. "Parents" are people who bear parental responsibility.
Health and safety at work.
If you are under 18, your employer must assess the possible risks to your health before giving you a job. He must pay special attention to your age, lack of experience and other factors that may put you at risk in the workplace.
If you have not reached the minimum age of a high school graduate, your employer is required to notify one of your parents of an assessment of possible risks, as well as the actions that he will take to ensure your safety. Such an assessment is not needed only if you work from time to time in a family enterprise or in someone's home and it is safe for you.
What kind of work you can do being 16-18 years old.
If you have reached the minimum age of a high school graduate, but you are under 18, your work assumes certain limitations. You cannot perform work: which you are physically or mentally incapable to do; related to chemical reagents, radiation or toxic substances; the risk associated with severe cold, heat or vibration. You can do this work only on the condition that: it is important for your training; you are under the supervision of an experienced worker; all risks are reduced to a minimum. These rules do not matter only if you work from time to time in a family business or someone's home and it is safe for you.
Children and young people who have not reached the minimum age of a high school graduate (only Wales and England as administrative and political part of the UK)
Persons who have not reached the minimum age of a high school graduate can perform only light work. You cannot perform work that is unsafe for you or can affect your attendance of school. You cannot work: at a factory or construction site; in transport; in mine; on a merchant ship. The local authorities should have additional rules concerning young workers. These are the so-called internal regulations, according to which it is possible or impossible to hire children and young people. You must clarify these rules in your city. For example, if a child trades on the street, it is often necessary to specify days, hours and places of work. If the employer wants to hire a child or a young person, he must obtain permission from the local authorities, signed by both the employer himself and one of the parents.
If you are under the age of 14, you cannot work at all, except for such kinds of work: participation in sports competitions, advertising, modeling business, performances, films, shows on television, etc. The employer must obtain permission from the local authorities; simple work for a neighbor, parent or relative; sitting with the child. However, according to the internal laws of local authorities, children of 13 years of age and older can perform other types of work. For example, you may be allowed to deliver newspapers.
Working hours and breaks at 16-18 years.
If you have reached the minimum age of a high school graduate, but under the age of 18, by law you should not work more than 8 hours a day, or more than 40 hours a week. You must have 12 hours of rest between working days and 48 hours of rest per working week. Also, if you work longer than 4.5 hours in a row, you can count on a 30-minute break. But there are some exceptions to this rule (they are listed below). There are restrictions on the number of hours that you can work at night. As a rule, you cannot work between 22:00 and 6:00.
Exceptions are: hospitals, agriculture, retail, hotel business, food delivery, bakeries, mail, newspaper delivery or activities related to advertising, sports, art. As a rule, you cannot work from midnight to 4:00, except for rare exceptions. The rules of the night hours of work are not applied if: your employer needs you, so that the work process does not stop, or in case of emergency; the work will not affect your study; no one from adults can perform this work at the moment; you are under the supervision of an adult (if this is important for your safety) and you are guaranteed a rest period for recovery. If you are allowed to work at night, your employer must assess the possible risks to your health. The employer must conduct such assessments on a regular basis, confirming that you are able to perform the duties assigned to you. You do not have to work more than 8 hours a day.
Children and young people who have not reached the minimum age of a high school graduate (Wales and England alone as an administrative and political part of the UK)
There are strict restrictions on working hours for children and young people who have not reached the minimum age of a high school graduate. You do not have to work: during school hours on any school day; more than 2 hours on any school day or more than 12 hours a week, when you must go to school; more than 2 hours on Sunday; more than 8 hours (5 hours, if you are under the age of 15) on any day when you are not studying, or on Sunday; before 7:00 or after 19:00; more than 35 hours (25 hours, if you are under the age of 15) any week, when you do not need to go to school; more than 4 hours on any day without a break for 1 hour; at any time, if within 12 months from January 1 you did not have two weeks of school holiday.