Volunteers were left to help Grenfell Tower residents amid a "badly flawed" council response to the disaster, a report has found.
Those without shelter turned to aid groups in the wake of the blaze that killed 72 people on 14 June 2017, the review by Muslim Aid said.
It said charities "on the front line" filled the gap created by Kensington and Chelsea Council's "slow response".
The authority, which was criticised for "weak leadership", declined to comment.
It said the ongoing public inquiry prevented it from doing so.
What did the report say?
Muslim Aid's review found those seeking refuge and information about their relatives after the blaze faced "limited co-ordination".
By the next day, no council helpline had been set up so several charities established their own to fill in the gap, it said.
"Weak leadership" of the initial council response compounded the consequences of the disaster, the report said.
The authority was "slow to provide direction, co-ordination and information and to address multiple pressing needs," the report said.